It was in 1965 that Jack Bokros, Ph. D. first introduced the medical world to pyrolytic carbon, now the most accepted material for mechanical valves. Dr. Bokros collaboration with Vincent Gott, M. D. (a cardiac surgeon) led to the very first carbon valves, marking the beginning of a new era in rehabilitative cardiac surgery. Dr. Bokros continued to develop and refine prosthetic heart valve technology. In collaboration with St. Jude Medical, he and his associates developed the first all-carbon bileaflet valve that became the most widely used valve in the world. Subsequently, as founders of Carbomedics, Inc., Dr. Bokros team developed and marketed the Carbomedics valve. This team also performed the preliminary work on a valve design that later became the ATS valve. The evolution of mechanical heart valve technology is a reflection of the evolution of Dr. Bokros career as it progressed through a series of medical device companies. Throughout his long and pioneering career Dr. Bokros has attracted and retained competent associates, providing a continuity of effort and skills. Medical Carbon Research Institute, LLC (MCRI) was founded by Dr. Bokros and associates in April of 1994. Their goal was to further advance prosthetic heart valve technology by capitalizing on their recently developed new pyrolytic carbon. The culmination of that team effort is the state-of-the-art On-X Prosthetic Heart Valve. Clinical trials have shown that the On-X valve surpasses all other mechanical valves on the market in hemodynamic and clinical performance. The valve received full pre-market approval from the FDA in March of 2002. In parallel with the manufacture of the heart valve, On-X Life Technologies, Inc. produces pyrolytic carbon coating and associated contract manufacturing services to other device manufacturers. In 2007, the company changed its name from MCRI to On-X Life Technologies, Inc. (On-X LTI) and developed product groups.